Style Sheet

Juvenilia Press Policy on Bibliographical Citation for Endnotes, Explanatory Notes, and Works Cited and Consulted

Volumes in the Juvenilia Press series should contain, in addition to the main text, an Introduction with Endnotes, a Note on the Text with Endnotes, Explanatory Notes to the Text, and Works Cited and Consulted at the end of the volume. Bibliographical citation in all notes should be in a shortened form and then listed, with a full citation, in the Works Cited and Consulted. See below Bibliographical references in Endnotes and Explanatory Notes.

For hints on what material should be annotated, see Guidelines: Notes on Preparing a Volume for the Juvenilia Press.

Abbreviations: Texts frequently cited in the endnotes and explanatory notes can be listed under ‘Abbreviations’ at the head of the Explanatory Notes section, where they should be fully referenced using the conventions for Works Cited and Consulted stated below. Lettered abbreviations should be italicised and rendered with no stops, e.g. OED (The Oxford English Dictionary), Qtd (Quoted)
NB. Titles should be abbreviated, without a period at the end, as follows: Revd, Dr, Mr and Mrs

Quotations: Use quotation marks for quotations of a sentence or less (in prose) or for two lines of verse or less (in poetry) cited in the text. Longer quoted passages should be indented, without quotation marks, and single-spaced. Introduce longer, indented quotations with a colon followed by a single line space.

Quotation marks: Double quotation marks should be used throughout the volume, except for extracts set apart from the text. For quotations within quotations use single quotation marks. If quoted texts use single quotation marks, they should be normalised to double marks.

Punctuation: Punctuation marks should follow closing quotation marks except for grammatically complete sentences beginning with a capital, e.g. "The book under discussion breaks new ground." Cf. He suggests that the book under discussion "breaks new ground".

Dashes: There should be no space between an em-dash and the words on either side, e.g. In Austen's time the dinner party was to polite society what a singles bar—or a high school dance—is to the young people of today.

Ellipses: Use 4 dots (....) for an omission of a complete sentence and 3 dots (...) if only part of a sentence is omitted. Ellipses at the beginning and end of quoted matter will be kept only if necessary for the sense. There should be a space before and after the ellipsis.

Spelling: Please use British spelling and refer to the OED.

Italics: Titles of books, and works published as an individual volume, should be italicised. Italics should also be used for titles of illustrations, e.g. John Martin's The Deluge. Quotation marks should be used for the titles of short poems, sections of long poems, chapter titles of books, short stories, essays and periodical articles, e.g. Yeats's poem "The Tower" in the collection entitled The Tower.

Possessives: Apostrophe "s" at the end of possessive forms should be made consistent for "modern" names (e.g. Dickens's, Jones's). The names of "ancients" should have no final "s" (e.g. Sophocles', Jesus') except when they have only one syllable (e.g. Zeus's).

Dates: Dates should be made consistent in the form: 1 May 1830. For an historical person, refer to the birth and death date in brackets after the name when it is first mentioned, e.g. the Duke of Wellington (1769–1852).
Please note: we use 1980s and not 1980’s with an apostrophe

Numerals: Numerals should be written out up to 100. Centuries should be written out (e.g. "eighteenth-century" for adjective and "eighteenth century" for noun). Precise measurements, money, etc., should be in figures (e.g. $3.54, 7 stone, 23.4 cm). Percentages should also be in figures, but with the word "per cent" spelt out (e.g. 25 per cent).

Numbers: Numbers should appear in the style of 516, 1718, 3436, 13436. Runs of numbers and dates should be elided consistently to the shortest possible form, except when the first number ends in zero (e.g. 300-303). The penultimate digit for the sequence 10–19 in any hundred should also be retained. E.g. 4–8, 9–15, 17–18, 19–33, 24–8, 45–56, 99–111, 112–18, 132–8, 145–56, 215–16, 281–3, etc. Years should be elided to 1829–30, 1924–5, unless the years run across a century (1895–1904) or refer to the birth and death date of an historical person (as cited under Dates above).

Bibliographical references in Endnotes and Explanatory Notes

Endnotes for Introduction and for Note on the Text: 
As noted above, bibliographical citation in all notes should be in full in the first instance, keyed to a superscript note, and then in a shortened form for subsequent references to the same work. For the Introduction, subsequent references in shortened form should appear in brackets in the main text. For examples see under the following headings, especially Books.

If possible confine references these to notes of substance. It is possible to avoid too many bibliographical endnotes by making the context of the quotation clear in the text and including the page number in brackets.

Examples

  • James Edward Austen-Leigh included this "juvenile effusion" in the second edition of his Memoir of Jane Austen, published in 1871, as "a specimen of the kind of transitory amusement which Jane was continually supplying for the family party" (42–5). He adds that "The family have, rightly I think, declined to let these early works be published" (46).
  • The curtain, once raised, stayed up for the whole play, so scenery "was changed in full view of the audience" (Styan 241).
  • B.C. Southam suggests that these are "two pieces of Jane Austen's own composition ... not transcribed in any of the three notebooks" (Minor Works, 458). [= Title is added when more than one work by Southam is listed in Works Cited and Consulted.]

Literary references:
For identifying literary references, provide author, title, and date (for first reference), with reference by Act, scene and line (e.g. 4.3.216) for plays; section and line for long poems (with cantos, etc); and chapter number for novels (e.g. ch. 4), so that these references may be traced in any edition. If the reference is thus complete, the literary source need not be included in the Works Cited and Consulted.  Exception:

  • references to Jane Austen volumes should cite volume and page, not chapter (since both Chapman's edition of Works and the new Cambridge edition use this format).

Example

Endnote:
15 See Sheriden's The Critic (1779) 1.2.165-6.

Explanatory Note:
24 porphyry, lapis-lazuli and agate vessels: Detailed descriptions of precious stones and exotic wares can also be found in Byron's poetry: for example, "Her pyramid of precious stones, of porphyry, jasper, agate and all hues of gem and marble", Childe Harold (1818) 4, 60.
74 the Lakes: the Lake District in the northwest of England; a popular summer destination, made so especially by Gilpin's Tours (1789) and linked with Romanticism through Wordsworth, who came from this district. See Elizabeth's planned but curtailed excursion with her aunt and uncle Gardiner in Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813) 2, 4; and 2, 19.

Books:

For full reference:state the author's Christian name, surname, title in italics, place of publication, publisher, year of publication, and page number/numbers.
For shortened references: author's surname and page number (no comma used).

Exceptions:

  • if there is more than one book by the same author listed in Works Cited and Consulted, provide the shortened title of the work in italics, followed by a comma;
  • also provide the volume number if applicable;
  • if the reference is obvious from the context (i.e. author and title have already been cited in the main text so only the page number is necessary);
  • if the book is a dictionary (e.g. OED or Websters) no page number is necessary.

Note: The p. and pp. convention is not used.

Example

Full reference:
6  B.C. Southam, Jane Austen's Literary Manuscripts: A Study of the Novelist's Development through the Surviving Papers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964), 3.
Shortened references:

Endnote:
6 See Southam 3.
In-Text Reference in Introduction:
“Love and Freindship” (1790) from Volume the Second has been called "the most amusing and incisive of all eighteenth-century attacks upon sentimental fiction" (Southam 3).

Explanatory Note:
25 To Miss Lloyd: Southam notes that the dedication "is remarkable for being in a later hand than that in which the rest of the piece is written" (Southam 232).
[If there is another volume by Southam listed in Works Cited and Consulted, the reference would read: (Southam, Austen's Literary Manuscripts, 232).]

Note: For edited volumes, after names of editors provide "ed." in brackets for single editor, "eds" (no period) in brackets for multiple editors.

Example
26 Giant of Clouds: probably the Chief Genii Charlotte, protector of Wellington. Several of Branwell's sketches on the title pages of his early manuscripts depict a "Justice" figure standing on clouds. See Alexander and Sellars (eds) 300–303.

Articles:

For full reference: state the author's Christian name, surname, title of article in double inverted commas, source of article in italics, (journal or book title, plus editor if relevant), year of publication, and page number/numbers.
For shortened references: surname and page number (no comma used).

Examples
Full Reference:
Joyce Flynn, "Dialect as Didactic Tool: Maria Edgeworth's Use of Hiberno-English", Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 2 (1982), 115.
Shortened References:
Endnote:
3 See Flynn 115.
In-Text Reference in Introduction: Edgeworth's employment of the Anglo-Irish dialect provides a "social hierarchy systemically stratified in terms of pronunciation and idiom" (Flynn 118).
Explanatory Note:
49 chuse ta: an Anglo-Irish rendering of "choose tea" (Flynn 144).

Note: if the Endnote or Explanatory Note itself needs referencing, include the reference in brackets:
Example
8 According to J. L. Styan, the theatrical burlesque of the Georgian period included the farce, the burletta, a short "skit with words and music," and the ballad-opera (285).

PhD Dissertations: 
For full reference: state the author's Christian name, surname, title of thesis or dissertation in double inverted commas, PhD Thesis, name of university, year of publication, and page number/numbers.
For shortened references: surname, shortened title of thesis or dissertation in double inverted commas and page number (no comma used).
Examples
Full Reference:
Katarina Keane, “Second Wave Feminism in the American South, 1965–1980”, PhD Dissertation
        (University of Maryland, 2009).
Shortened References:
Endnote:
20 For more see Keane “Second Wave Feminism in the American South” 115.
In-Text Reference in Introduction: These women just shifted the efforts, in the twentieth century, to support such causes as female health initiatives, domestic violence prevention, and education for women (Keane 115).

Bibliographical references in Works Cited and Consulted

All references in Works Cited and Consulted should utilise the hanging indent (indented second and other lines, as used in this sentence).

Books: Put the author's name in reverse order (surname, followed by the initials or first name according to the author's own practice), then provide:

  • the full title of work in italics (with first letters of nouns and pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs capitalised);
  • the volume number (in arabic numerals);
  • the place of publication;
  • the publisher (University Presses can be abbreviated to UP; OUP and CUP are acceptable);
  • the date of publication.
  • Use punctuation as indicated below (i.e. stops between sections and colon after place of publication).
  • If there is more than one book under the same author (or editor), rank books by date of publication with the earliest publication listed first. Do not repeat name of author; indent with a line.

Edited Books: Editions of primary texts should be listed under the author's name, not the editor's name. The editor or editors should be introduced by "Ed." (e.g. Lady Susan below). Other edited books should be listed under the editor's name. After names of editors provide "ed." in brackets for single editor, "eds" (no period) in brackets for multiple editors.

Examples
Austen, Jane. Lady Susan. Ed. R. W. Chapman. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925. Alexander, Christine and Margaret Smith (eds). The Oxford Companion to the Brontës. Oxford: OUP, 2003. Smith, Margaret (ed.). The Letters of Charlotte Brontëe. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995-2004. Austen-Leigh, James Edward. A Memoir of Jane Austen. 2nd ed. London ed. Richard Bentley and Son, 1871; repr. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926. Austen, Jane. Minor Works, vol. 6 of The Works of Jane Austen [The Oxford Illustrated Jane Austen]. Ed. R. W. Chapman. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954; further rev. by B. C. Southam, 1969.

Articles: Put the author's name in reverse order (surname, followed by the initials or first name according to the author's own practice), then provide:

  • the full title of the article in double inverted commas (with first letters of nouns and pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs capitalised) followed by a period

If the article appeared in a journal, provide:

  • the title of the journal in italics;
  • the volume and issue number of the journal (in arabic numerals);
  • the year in brackets;
  • the page numbers of the article.

Example
Jack, Ian. "Physiology, Phrenology and Characterization in the Novels of Charlotte Brontë", Brontë Society Transactions 15.2 (1970), 377-91.

If the article appeared in a book, after the title of the article insert the word "in" followed by the bibliographical details as for Books above.

Example
McMaster, Juliet. "The Juvenilia: Energy Versus Sympathy", in A Companion to Jane Austen Studies. Ed. Laura Cooper Lambdin and Robert Thomas Lambdin. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 2000.

PhD Dissertations:  Put the author's name in reverse order (surname, followed by the initials or first name according to the author's own practice), then provide:

  • the full title of the thesis inverted commas (with first letters of nouns and pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs capitalised) followed by a period.
  • PhD Dissertation followed by a period.
  • Name of university
  • date

Example
Keane, Katarina. “Second Wave Feminism in the American South, 1965–1980”. PhD Dissertation.
        University of Maryland, 2009.

Internet Sources

The basic entry may have up to six parts to it:
Author's or editor's name. "Title of document". Information about print publication if relevant. Information about electronic publication. Information about how to access the document (date of most recent access, in the format: 1 January 2007).

Please provide all of the following information that is relevant and available, in this order:

  1. Author's or editor's name, in the same format as for print sources.
  2. Title of document, in the same format as for print sources. (Unless you are citing an on-line book, this title will generally go within double quotation marks.) If the document is a posting to a discussion list or forum, take the title from the subject line, and follow by a description. If the document does not have a title, provide a description, such as Course home page. Descriptions should not be within quotation marks or in italics.
  3. Information about print publication if relevant, in the same format as for print sources.

Information about electronic publication: provide all of the following information that is relevant and available, in this order:

  1. Title of the internet site or database, in italics. If the site has no title, provide a description, such as Home page. Do not place the description within quotation marks or in italics.
  2. Name of the editor of the site. Do not use "Ed" or other abbreviations to introduce the name.
  3. Version number of the source (if not part of the title) or, for an electronic journal, the volume number, issue number, or other identifying number.
  4. Date of electronic publication, or the most recent update, or of posting.
  5. Name of the subscription service (Ebsco, Gale, etc.
  6. Name of the discussion list or forum, in the case of a posting.
  7. The number range, or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections (if not cited earlier).
  8. Name of institution or organization sponsoring the site (if not cited earlier).

Information about how to access the site: the basic citation provides the URL of the source, including the protocol. However, this is not always helpful to your reader, since many URLs are long and complicated, and not all are stable.

  1. Provide whichever of the following will be most helpful to any reader who wishes to access the document (do not use any closing punctuation):
    • URL of the source, including protocol (http, ftp, telnet, Gopher), in angle brackets
      OR
    • URL of the site's or the service's search page, including protocol, in angle brackets
      OR
    • URL of the site's or the service's home page, including protocol, in angle brackets, followed by the word Path and a colon; then specify the sequence of links by which a reader may go from the home page to the document.
  2. Provide the most recent date on which you accessed the document, in parentheses.

Example: article on website

Ray, Joan Klingel. "President's Message". JASNA. 30 December 2006. Jane Austen Society of North America. <http://www.jasna.org> (2 January 2007).

Example: on-line journal with paragraphs instead of pages, stable URL

Bennett, Alexandra G. "'Now Let My Language Speake': The Authorship, Rewriting, and Audience(s) of Jane Cavendish and Elizabeth Brackley". Early Modern Literary Studies 11.2 (September, 2005), 13 pars.
<http://purl.oclc.org/emls/11-2/benncav2.htm> (15 December 2006).

Example: electronic database with home page and path specified

"Juvenilia". Orlando: Women's Writing in the British Isles from the Beginning to the Present. Ed. Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy. Cambridge University Press. <http://orlando.cambridge.org>. Path: search by name; Jane Austen (1 January 2007).

Example: on-line posting from discussion list

Gandolfi, Luca. "Jane Austen Italian Website". On-line posting. 16 October 2006. C18-L: Resources for Eighteenth-Century Studies across the Disciplines. Pennsylvania State University.
<http://www.personal.psu.edu/special/C18/c18-l.htm>. Path: Search the
C18-L Archives (28 October 2006).

Example: on-line posting of print journal

Losano, Antonia. "The Professionalization of the Woman Artist in Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall". Nineteenth-Century Literature 58.1 (June, 2003), 1- 41. JSTOR. <http://links.jstor.org> (8 January 2007).

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