Dr Meg Mumford

Senior Lecturer
BA Hons (U.N.E.); PhD (Bristol, UK)
School of the Arts & Media

Contact

+61 2 9385 4865
+61 2 9385 6812
Room 112, Level 1, Robert Webster
Kensington Campus

Consultation

Monday 4-5pm Tuesday 4-5pm
Fields: Drama, Theatre and Performance Studies
Tags: The performing arts (incl. music, theatre and danc

Meg Mumford is currently the Postgraduate Research Convenor for the School of the Arts & Media.

She and Caroline Wake have been nominated as one of the supervisory teams who will, in the first instance, assist suitable candidates to apply for a UNSW Scientia PhD Scholarship 2018 in their chosen topic area - theatre of the real. Until 30 June 2017 they will be seeking out potential postgraduate students to be shortlisted as applicants for one of the Scholarships.

The project they have proposed explores the politics of participation and representation in 'theatre of the real' named after Carol Martin’s groundbreaking work on theatre about real events in her book of the same title (2013).  Such theatre explicitly cites or summons the real world and its problems and is an increasingly prominent form of performance internationally. It includes autobiographical, documentary, and participatory practices. Often involving vulnerable or marginalised people, theatre of the real casts these participants as “everyday experts” with valuable knowledge derived from their lived experience. This project investigates what happens when such experts meet theatre professionals and spectators. To this end it explores the complex politics and ethics that surround the process of empowering people through theatre.

If you are interested in applying for a Scientia PhD Scholarship in theatre of the real, please send an email and CV to both Meg (m.mumford@unsw.edu.au) and Caroline (c.wake@unsw.edu.au) by 30 June.

 

 

Research

I am a Senior Lecturer in Theatre and Performance Studies at UNSW.  I specialise in modern and contemporary German theatre, and have an ongoing research interest in socially engaged performance.  My research focuses on the way in which theatre writing, staging and spectating respond to socio-historical contexts,  ideologies and habitual modes of perception.  This focus underpins my work on the following topics: the relation of Marxist discourse to the theory and practice of German playwright-director Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956); sex-gender ideology and intercultural encounter within German drama, performance and dance theatre since the early twentieth century; and the engagement with cultural diversity within innovative forms of contemporary Theatre of Real People from both Australia and Germany. My research advances disciplinary understanding of theatre’s capacities and strategies for engaging with social inequity and difference.  It also speaks to a broader audience interested in the kinds of response that art can make to a world increasingly marked by interaction with complex cultural identities. I am currently a member of the editorial board for The Brecht Yearbook / Das Brecht Jahrbuch, and Asia-Pacific Book Reviews Editor for Theatre Research International.  

** Meg Mumford and Caroline Wake have been nominated as one of the supervisory teams who will, in the first instance, assist suitable candidates to apply for a UNSW Scientia PhD Scholarship 2018 in their chosen topic area - theatre of the real. Until 30 June 2017 they will be seeking out potential postgraduate students to be shortlisted as applicants for one of the Scholarships.

The project they have proposed explores the politics of participation and representation in theatre of the real named after Carol Martin’s groundbreaking work on theatre about real events in her book of the same title (2013).  Such theatre explicitly cites or summons the real world and its problems and is an increasingly prominent form of performance internationally.It includes autobiographical, documentary, and participatory practices. Often involving vulnerable or marginalised people, theatre of the real casts these participants as “everyday experts” with valuable knowledge derived from their lived experience. This project investigates what happens when such experts meet theatre professionals and spectators. To this end it explores the complex politics and ethics that surround the process of empowering people through theatre.

If you are interested in applying for a Scientia PhD Scholarship in theatre of the real, please send an email and CV to both Meg (m.mumford@unsw.edu.au) and Caroline (c.wake@unsw.edu.au) by 30 June.

BOOKS

Garde, Ulrike & Meg Mumford, Theatre of Real People: Diverse Encounters from Berlin's Hebbel am Ufer and Beyond (London: Bloomsbury, 2016).

Birgfeld, Johannes, Ulrike Garde & Meg Mumford (eds), Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren (Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2015).

Mumford, Meg, Bertolt Brecht (London and New York: Routledge, 2009). [Included in Choice magazine's list of Outstanding Academic Titles for 2009.]

 

ARTICLES 

Mumford, Meg & Ulrike Garde, 'Staging Real People: On the Arts and Effects of Non-Professional Theatre Performers', Performance Paradigm, 11 (2015): 5-15, http://www.performanceparadigm.net/index.php/journal/article/view/167

‘Rimini Protokoll's Reality Theatre and Intercultural Encounter: Towards an Ethical Art of Partial Proximity’, Contemporary Theatre Review, 23.3 (2013): 153-65. 

‘Pina Bausch Choreographs Blaubart: A Transgressive or Regressive Act?’, German Life and Letters, LVII, 1 (2004): 44-57.

‘Barthes on Brecht’s Tableau: Fetish meets Flux’, Communications from the International Brecht Society, 32 (June 2003): 42-7.

Mumford, Meg & Alison Phipps, ‘Translating the Strange, Performing the Peculiar: Marieluise Fleißer's Fegefeuer in Ingolstadt’, Studies in Theatre and Performance, 22, 2 (2002): 69-81.

‘Gestic Masks in Brecht’s Theatre: A Testimony to the Contradictions and Parameters of a Realist Aesthetic’, The Brecht Yearbook, 26 (2001): 143-71.

‘Brecht on Acting for the 21st Century: Interrogating and Re-Inscribing the Fixed’, Communications from the International Brecht Society, 29, 1 & 2 (June 2000): 44-9.

‘Brecht Studies Stanislavski: Just a Tactical Move?’, New Theatre Quarterly, 11, 43 (1995): 241-58.

CHAPTERS 

Mumford, Meg, '100% City and Popular Factual Television: A New Game Plan for Managing Proximity to People?', in Johannes Birgfeld, Ulrike Garde & Meg Mumford (eds), Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren (Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2015), pp. 278-301.

Birgfeld, Johannes, Ulrike Garde & Meg Mumford, 'Introduction: Diverse and Close-Up Navigations of Rimini Protokoll's Theatre', in Johannes Birgfeld, Ulrike Garde & Meg Mumford (eds), Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren (Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2015), pp. ix-xxv.

Mumford, Meg, 'Toward Transculturality in Reality Theatre from Berlin and Sydney: A Study of the Nomad in Rimini Protokoll's Cargo Sofia-X and the "Spiritual Medium" in Fast Cars and Tractor Engines by Urban Theatre Projects', in Alan Corkhill and Alison Lewis (eds), Intercultural Encounters in German Studies (St. Ingbert: Röhrig, 2014), pp. 181-196.

Garde, Ulrike & Meg Mumford, ‘Postdramatic Reality Theatre and Productive Insecurity: Destabilising Encounters with the Unfamiliar in Theatre from Sydney and Berlin’, in Jerome Carroll, Steve Giles and Karen Jürs-Munby (eds), Postdramatic Theatre and the Political: International Perspectives on Contemporary Performance (London: Bloomsbury (Methuen Drama), 2013), pp. 157-64.

‘Fluid Collectives of Friendly Strangers: The Creative Politics of Difference in the Reality Theatre of Rimini Protokoll and Urban Theatre Projects’, in Gerhard Fischer & Florian Vaßen (eds), Collective Creativity: Collaborative Work in the Sciences, Literature and the Arts (Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi, 2010), pp. 329-43.

Aftershocks: Voices from a Shaken Community', in Paul Brown (ed.), Verbatim: Staging Memory and Community (Currency Press: Sydney, 2010), pp. 37-48. 

Wake, Caroline, Meg Mumford & Ulrike Garde, ‘A Short History of Verbatim Theatre', in Paul Brown (ed.), Verbatim: Staging Memory and Community (Currency Press: Sydney, 2010), pp. 9-17.

Mumford, Meg & Alison Phipps, ‘Encountering Stories from Contemporary German Theatre’, Contemporary German Cultural Studies (London: Arnold, 2002), pp. 219-40. 

“Dragging” Brecht’s Gestus Onwards: A Feminist Challenge’, in Steve Giles and Rodney Livingstone (eds), Bertolt Brecht: Centenary Essays (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998), pp. 240-57.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

Panel Discussion Transcripts

Mumford, Meg & John Severn (eds.), 'Putting Real People on Stage: Helgard Haug (Rimini Protokoll) in Conversation with Australian Practitioners and Academics', Performance Paradigm, 11 (2015): 101-15, http://www.performanceparadigm.net/index.php/journal/article/view/165

Mumford, Meg (ed.), panel discussion transcript, 'Panel Discussion 100% Melbourne: Contemporary Documentary Performance that Puts "Real Melbournians" on the Stage', in Johannes Birgfeld, Ulrike Garde and Meg Mumford (eds), Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren (Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2015), pp. 302-17.

Conference Publication

‘Polykulturelle Akteure im “Reality Theater” von Rimini Protokoll und Urban Theatre Projects', in Ortrud Gutjahr, Deniz Göktürk, Alexander Honold (eds), Interkulturalität als Herausforderung und Forschungsparadigma der Literatur- und Medienwissenschaft, section 21 in Franciszek Grucza (ed.), Akten des XII. internationalen Germanistenkongresses Warschau 2010. Vielheit und Einheit der Germanistik weltweit, vol. 12 (Frankfurt am Main et al.: Peter Lang, 2012), pp. 191-5.    

Entries on ‘agitprop’, ‘bourgeois theatre’, ‘illusionism’, and ‘Verfremdung’, in Dennis Kennedy (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance, vols. 1 & 2 (Oxford: O.U.P., 2003).

PERFORMANCE REVIEWS

Mumford, Meg, film review of The Threepenny Opera, director Georg Wilhelm Pabst, Nero-Film/ Tobis /Warner Bros., 1931, in Michelle Langford (ed.), Directory of World Cinema: Germany 2 (Bristol: Intellect, 2013), pp. 210-12.

Garde, Ulrike & Meg Mumford, ‘Rimini Protokoll Presents “Real” Experts: 100% Melbourne and Radio Muezzin’, Kultur, Magazine of the Goethe-Institut in Australia, 23 (2012): 16-17.  See also: http://issuu.com/goetheaustralia/docs/gi_kultur23_sep12/1 [accessed September 2012]

Garde, Ulrike & Meg Mumford, performance review of Radio Muezzin, by Rimini Protokoll, Everest Theatre, Sydney Festival, January 2012, in ‘Experts of the Everyday: Rimini Protokoll’, RealTime, 108 (2012): 26.  See also: http://www.realtimearts.net/article/108/10617 [accessed May 2012]

Aurin, Andreas & Meg Mumford, performance review of Baal, director Simon Stone, a co-production of Sydney Theatre Company and Malthouse Melbourne, Wharf 1, Sydney Theatre Company, May 2011, in Communications from the International Brecht Society, 40 (2011): 58-62.  

BOOK REVIEWS 

Contemporary Theatres in Europe: A Critical Companion. Edited by Joe Kelleher and Nicholas Ridout (London & New York: Routledge, 2006). Review in http://performanceparadigm.net/journal/issue-4/bookreviews/ [Issue 4, 2008]

Women and German Drama: Playwrights and Their Texts, 1860-194. By Sarah Colvin (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2003). Review in Theatre Research International, (Summer 2005).

Brecht Sourcebook. Edited by Carol Martin & Henry Bial. London & New York: Routledge, 2000. Review in Theatre Research International (Autumn, 2000).

Schauspielerinnen im Europa des 18. Jahrhunderts: Ihr Leben, Ihre Schriften und Ihr Publikum. By Ruth Emde (Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi, 1997).  In Theatre Research International (Summer, 2000).

German Expressionist Theatre: The Actor and the Stage. By David F. Kuhns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). Review in Theatre Research International (Autumn, 1998).

German Theatre: A Bibliography from the Beginning to 1995. By Michael Patterson (Leicester: Motley Press, 1996). Review in Theatre Research International (Winter, 1997).

The Shocking Ballad Picture Show. By Tom Cheesman (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994).  Review in Theatre Research International (Autumn, 1997).

TRANSLATION

Dr Barbara Panse, ‘Censorship in Nazi Germany: The Influence of the Reich’s Ministry of Propaganda on German Theatre and Drama, 1933-45’ in Günter Berghaus (ed.), Fascism and Theatre: Comparative Studies on the Aesthetics and Politics of Performance in Europe 1925-1945 (Providence US and Oxford UK: Berghahn Books, 1996), pp. 140-56. 

Publications

    Books

    • Garde U;Mumford M, 2016, 'Theatre of Real People: Diverse Encounters at Berlin’s Hebbel Am Ufer and Beyond', Methuen Drama Engage, Bloomsbury Publishing, London
    • Mumford M, 2015, 'Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren', Forum für deutschsprachiges Drama und Theater in Geschichte, Wehrhahn Verlag, Hannover
    • Mumford M, 2009, Bertolt Brecht, Original, Routledge, London and New York

    Book Chapters

    • Bowen J;Garde U;Griffith A;Guglielmo V;Haug H;Kaegi S;Mumford ;Watts R, 2015, '‘Panel Discussion "100% Melbourne": Contemporary Documentary Performance that Puts “Real Melbournians” on the Stage’', in Mumford M (ed.), 'Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren', edn. Forum für deutschsprachiges Drama und Theater in Geschichte, Wehrhahn Verlag, Hannover, pp. 302 - 317
    • Mumford M, 2015, ''Introduction: Diverse and Close-Up Navigations of Rimini Protokoll's Theatre'', in 'Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren', edn. Forum für deutschsprachiges Drama und Theater in Geschichte, Wehrhahn Verlag, Hannover, pp. ix - xxv
    • Mumford M, 2015, ''"100% City" and Popular Factual Television: A New Game Plan for Managing Proximity to People?'', in Birgfeld J; Garde U; Mumford M (ed.), 'Rimini Protokoll Close-Up: Lektüren', edn. Forum für deutschsprachiges Drama und Theater in Geschichte, Wehrhahn Verlag, Hannover, pp. 278 - 301
    • Mumford M, 2014, ''Towards Transculturality in Reality Theatre from Berlin and Sydney: A Study of the Nomad in Rimini Protokoll's "Cargo Sofia-X" and the 'Spiritual Medium' in "Fast Cars and Tractor Engines" by Urban T', in Corkhill A; Lewis A (ed.), Intercultural Encounters in German Studies, Röhrig, St. Ingbert, pp. 181 - 196, http://www.roehrig-verlag.de/print_product_info.php?products_id=55652
    • Mumford M, 2013, 'Film review: 'The Threepenny Opera'', in Langford M (ed.), 'Directory of World Cinema: Germany 2', Intellect, Bristol, pp. 210 - 212
    • Mumford M;Garde U, 2013, ''Postdramatic Reality Theatre and Productive Insecurity: Destabilising Encounters with the Unfamiliar in Theatre from Sydney and Berlin'', in Carroll J; Professor SG; Jürs-Munby K (ed.), Postdramatic Theatre and the Political: International Perspectives on Contemporary Performance, edn. Methuen Drama Engage, A&C Black, London, pp. 147 - 164
    • Mumford M, 2011, 'Fluid Collectives of Friendly Strangers: The Creative Politics of Difference in the Reality Theatre of Rimini Protokoll and Urban Theatre Projects', in Fischer G; Vassen F (ed.), Collective creativity : collaborative work in the sciences, literature and the arts, edn. Original, Rodopi, Amsterdam, pp. 329 - 343
    • Mumford M;Wake C, 2010, 'A Short History of Verbatim Theatre', in Brown P (ed.), Verbatim: Staging Memory and Community, edn. Original, Currency Press, Strawberry Hills, NSW, pp. 9 - 17
    • Mumford M, 2010, ''"Aftershocks": Voices from a Shaken Community'', in Brown P (ed.), Verbatim: Staging Memory and Community, edn. Original, Currency Press, Strawberry Hills, Sydney, pp. 37 - 48
    • Mumford M, 2003, 'Encylopedia entry: 'Verfremdung'', in Kennedy D (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance, edn. Original, Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, pp. 1404 - 1405
    • Mumford M, 2003, 'Encyclopedia entry: 'Illusion'', in Kennedy D (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance, edn. Original, Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, pp. 617
    • Mumford M, 2003, 'Enyclopedia entry: 'Bourgeois Theatre'', in Kennedy D (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance, edn. Original, Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, pp. 176 - 177
    • Mumford M, 2003, 'Encyclopedia entry: Agitprop', in Kennedy D (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance, edn. Original, Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, pp. 38
    • Mumford M, 2002, '‘Encountering Stories from Contemporary German Theatre’', in Contemporary German Cultural Studies, Arnold, London, pp. 219 - 240
    • Mumford M, 1998, ''"Dragging” Brecht’s Gestus Onwards: A Feminist Challenge’ in Steve Giles and Rodney Livingstone (eds), 'Bertolt Brecht: Centenary Essays'', in 'Bertolt Brecht: Centenary Essays', Rodopi, Amsterdam, pp. 240 - 257

    Journal articles

    • Mumford M;Severn J, 2015, 'Panel discussion title: 'Putting Real People on Stage: Helgard Haug (Rimini Protokoll) in Conversation with Practitioners and Academics from Australia'', Performance Paradigm, pp. 101 - 115, http://www.performanceparadigm.net/index.php/journal/article/view/165
    • Mumford M;Garde U, 2015, ''Staging Real People: On the Arts and Effects of Non-Professional Theatre Performers'', Performance Paradigm, pp. 5 - 15, http://www.performanceparadigm.net/index.php/journal/article/view/167/165
    • Mumford M, 2013, '‘Rimini Protokoll's Reality Theatre and Intercultural Encounter: Towards an Ethical Art of Partial Proximity’', Contemporary Theatre Review, vol. 23, pp. 158 - 170, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10486801.2013.777057
    • Mumford M, 2012, 'Magazine article: 'Rimini Protokoll Presents Real Experts: "100% Melbourne" and "Radio Muezzin" (Sydney)'', Kultur, vol. 23, pp. 16 - 17
    • Mumford M, 2012, 'Performance Review: ''Experts of the Everyday: Rimini Protokoll'', RealTime, vol. 108, pp. 26
    • Mumford M;Aurin A, 2011, 'Performance review of 'Baal'', Communications from the International Brecht Society, vol. 40, pp. 58 - 62
    • Mumford M, 2008, 'Book Review: Contemporary Theatres in Europe: A Critical Companion', Performance Paradigm
    • Mumford M, 2005, 'Book Review: Women and German Drama: Playwrights and their Texts, 1869 - 1945', Theatre Research International, vol. 30, pp. 194 - 195
    • Mumford M, 2004, 'Pina Bausch Choreographs Blaubart: A Transgressive or Regressive Act?', German Life and Letters, vol. 57, pp. 45 - 57
    • Mumford M, 2003, 'Barthes on Brecht’s Tableau: Fetish meets Flux', Communications from the International Brecht Society, vol. 32, pp. 42 - 47
    • Mumford M, 2002, '‘Translating the Strange, Performing the Peculiar: Marieluise Fleißer's "Fegefeuer in Ingolstadt"’', Studies in Theatre and Performance, vol. 22, pp. 69 - 81
    • Mumford M, 2001, '‘Gestic Masks in Brecht’s Theatre: A Testimony to the Contradictions and Parameters of a Realist Aesthetic’', The Brecht Yearbook, vol. 26, pp. 143 - 171
    • Mumford M, 2000, 'Book Review of: 'Schauspielerinnen im Europa des 18. Jahrhunderts: Ihr Leben, Ihre Schriften und Ihr Publikum.' By Ruth Emde (Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi, 1997).', Theatre Research International
    • Mumford M, 2000, 'Book Review: 'Brecht Sourcebook' Edited by Carol Martin & Henry Bial. London & New York: Routledge, 2000', Theatre Research International
    • Mumford M, 2000, '‘Brecht on Acting for the 21st Century: Interrogating and Re-Inscribing the Fixed’', Communications from the International Brecht Society, vol. 29, pp. 44 - 49
    • Mumford M, 1998, 'Book Review of: 'German Expressionist Theatre: The Actor and the Stage' By David F. Kuhns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).', Theatre Research international
    • Mumford M, 1997, 'Book Review of: 'The Shocking Ballad Picture Show' By Tom Cheesman (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1994).', Theatre Research International
    • Mumford M, 1997, 'Book Review of: 'German Theatre: A Bibliography from the Beginning to 1995' By Michael Patterson (Leicester: Motley Press, 1996).', Theatre Research International
    • Mumford M, 1995, 'Brecht Studies Stanislavski: Just a Tactical Move?', New Theatre Quarterly, vol. 11, pp. 241 - 258

    Other

    • Mumford M, 1996, Dr Barbara Panse, ‘Censorship in Nazi Germany: The Influence of the Reich’s Ministry of Propaganda on German Theatre and Drama, 1933-45’ in Günter Berghaus (ed.), 'Fascism and Theatre: Comparative Stu, Berghahn Books, Providence US and Oxford UK

Teaching

UNDERGRADUATE CONVENORSHIP IN 2017

Session 1

ARTS2122 Performance Production 1; ARTS3132 Based on a True Story: Theatres of the Real

Session 2

 ARTS2125 Acting and Performing on Stage, ARTS3131 Playing Australia

RESEARCH SUPERVISION

I HAVE SUPERVISED SUCCESSFUL MA THESES ON:
Actor-object relations
Pirandello's metacharacters
Representations of violent women in 1990s British drama and theatre

I HAVE SUPERVISED SUCCESSFUL PhD THESES ON:
Multimedia Theatre in the Virtual Age.
Performing Witness: Testimonial Theatre in the Age of Asylum Australia 2000-2005.
The Politics of 'New' Community-based Guerrilla Performance in Australia.
Walking in Sydney Looking for Dancing: An Autoethnographic Mapping of the Place of Independent Dance.
'What is the cause of thunder?': A Study of the Storm in King Lear                                                                                                                         

Dialectical Music and the Lehrstück
Shakespeare and Jukebox Musical

I AM CURRENTLY SUPERVISING PhD STUDENTS WORKING ON:
The Lacanian gaze and works by Pina Bausch and Jacques Tati

The rhetoric of democracy and contemporary performance

The actor's presence in Chinese traditional opera and Western drama

GENERAL SUPERVISION AREAS
German theatre and dance theatre; theories of acting and performing; politics and theatre, particularly gender and class politics; theatre of real people and documentary performance; cultural and feminist materialist approaches to theatre; theatre history and historiography.

Honours and prizes

Bertolt Brecht (London and New York: Routledge, 2009) was included in Choice magazine's international list of Outstanding Academic Titles for 2009.

Overseas Research Students Award, Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals, UK, 1992

Keith and Dorothy Mackay Travelling Scholarship, University of New England, Australia, 1991

University Medal in Theatre, University of New England, Australia, 1991

Professional contribution

Examiner for 7 PhD theses and 1 MA.

Affiliations and membership

Australasian Association for Theatre, Drama and Performance Studies;
German Studies Association of Australia;
International Brecht Society;
Internationale Vereinigung Germanistik/International Association for Germanic Studies.

Other information

EXTERNAL SERVICE ROLES

Editorial board member for The Brecht Yearbook / Das Brecht Jahrbuch 2016-

Asia-Pacific Book Reviews Editor for Theatre Research International 2016-7

EXTERNAL FUNDING:
Goethe Institut, Glasgow, for ‘Brecht Fest’ 1998 and Purgatory in Ingolstadt 1999
Faculty of Arts, University of Glasgow, for Purgatory in Ingolstadt research project on intercultural transfer, 1999
Goethe Institut, Sydney, for Ta(l)king Pleasure in German Culture symposium, October 2007

ARC LIEF Grant 2014: AusStage phase 5: Australian live performance and the world - global networks, national culture, aesthetic transmission