Sandra Hale

Professor of Interpreting and Translation
Professor

Sandra graduated with the first PhD in forensic linguistics/court interpreting in Australia in 2001. Since then, her research has covered different aspects of legal interpreting, including issues of quality, accuracy, codes of ethics, role expectations, the impact of interpreters on legal proceedings, the perceptions of interpreters held by service providers and non-English speakers and the impact of working conditions on interpreter performance.

As a pioneer in legal interpreting research, Sandra is one of the first in the world to conduct large data-based research of court interpreted proceedings, using a combination of innovative research methods that have been later adopted by other researchers. Her research has not only described current interpreting practices, but also tested their effect on judicial outcomes. Using authentic court transcripts, her research micro-analysed the discoursal interaction between the law, the non-English speaking witnesses, and the interpreters, with particular attention to the impact of the interpreters’ renditions on the effect of strategic questions and on juror evaluations of witness testimony. Sandra is also among the few to have conducted experimental studies in the field. The results of her study shed light on the meaning of accuracy in the courtroom setting and led to the development of a model of court interpreting accuracy, informed by Pragmatic theory, which is now widely used as a basis for interpreting training and as a theoretical model for PhD research.

All of Sandra’s research has practical applications for interpreting training and practice, as well as for policy on court interpreting. Sandra has actively disseminated the results of research not only among academics, but also among practising interpreters, legal practitioners and the judiciary, which has helped to raise awareness of interpreting issues and achieve better judicial outcomes. She has been invited to provide expert advice on interpreting for a Supreme Court appeal on the grounds of incompetent interpreting, and is cited in the NSW Judges’ Bench book (Judicial Commission of NSW) and Protocols for Working with Interpreters (Northern Territory Supreme Court). Sandra is currently working on the following research projects:

  • Interpreting justice: mode, accuracy and credibility (ARC Discovery grant)
  • Interpreting mode: interpreter presence, and language in investigative interviews (FBI grant)
  • Interpreters in court: witness credibility with interpreted testimony (ARC Linkage grant)
  • Participation in the administration of justice: Deaf citizens as jurors (ARC Linkage grant)
  • Communication Skills training for oncology health care professionals working with culturally and linguistically diverse patients (ARC Linkage grant)
  • A phase II randomised controlled trial of consultation audiorecordings plus question prompt lists for people with cancer from Greek, Chinese or Arabic background (NHMRC grant)

Awards

  • 2016 Elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities
  • 2015 Recipient of the Dean’s Award for Programs that Enhance Learning, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales
  • 2015 Conferred Dean's Award for Research Society Impact, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales
  • 2014 Elected National AUSIT President
  • 2014 Conferred Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Antwerp
  • 2013 Appointed Fellow of The Australian Institute of Interpreters & Translators (AUSIT)
  • 2007 Awarded the UWS Vice-Chancellor’s Excellence award for University Engagement (Commended)
  • 2007 NAATI Recognition Award
  • 2001 Awarded the Macquarie University Vice-Chancellor’s Award and Dean’s Commendation for PhD thesis
Subject areas

Publications

Books
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Hale S; Napier J, 2013, Research Methods in Interpreting: A Practical Resource, 1st, Bloomsbury, London & New York, http://www.bloomsbury.com/au/research-methods-in-interpreting-9781441168511/
2013
Hale S, 2010, La interpretación comunitaria, Original, Editorial Comares, Granada
2010
Hale S, (ed.), 2008, Interpreting in Legal Settings, Gallaudet University Press, Washington D.C
2008
Hale S, 2007, Community Interpreting, Original, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK
2007
Hale S, 2004, The discourse of court interpreting., Original, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2004
Valverde E; Hale S; Ramirez E, 1994, Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of Nine Key Languages in Australia, Original, National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia, 112 Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
1994
Book Chapters
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Hale S, 2019, 'Specialist legal interpreters for a fairer justice system', in Faiq S (ed.), , Routledge, Oxon; New York, pp. 47 - 66
2019
Hale SB; Gonzalez E, 2017, 'Teaching legal interpreting at university level: A research-based approach', in Cirillo L; Niemants N (ed.), Teaching Dialogue Interpreting Research-based proposals for higher education, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 199 - 216, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/btl.138.10hal
2017
Hale S, 2015, 'Community Interpreting', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 65 - 69, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
2015
Hale S, 2015, 'Register', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 338 - 339, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
2015
Hale S; Napier J, 2015, 'Methodology', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 257 - 260, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
2015
Hale S, 2012, 'Public Service Interpreting', in The Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199239306.013.0024
2012
Hale S, 2010, 'Court interpreting: The need to raise the bar: Court interpreters as specialized experts', in The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics, pp. 440 - 454
2010
Hale S, 2010, 'The need to raise the bar. Court interpreters as specialized experts', in Coulthard M; Johnson A (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics, edn. Original, Routledge, New York
2010
Ozolins U; Hale S; Stern L, 2009, 'Quality in interpreting: A shared responsibility', in The Critical Link 5. Quality in interpreting - a shared responsibility, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 1 - 10
2009
Hale S; Russell D, 2008, 'Introduction', in Russell D; Hale SB (ed.), Interpreting in Legal Settings, edn. Illustrated, Gallaudet University Press, Washington D.C, pp. 75 - 75, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mice.12054
2008
Hale S, 2008, 'Controversies over the role of the court interpreter', in Valero-Garcés C; Martin A (ed.), Crossing Borders in Community Interpreting, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 99 - 121
2008
Hale S, 2005, 'Los interpretes y su influencia en la evaluacion del caracter de los testigos en el sistema acusatorio', in Turell M (ed.), Lingüística forense, lengua y derecho: conceptos, métodos y aplicaciones, edn. Original, Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada, Barcelona, pp. 221 - 232
2005
Hale S, 2005, 'The interpreter's identity crisis', in House J; Baumgarten N (ed.), Translation and the construction of identity, edn. Original, IATIS, USA, pp. 14 - 29
2005
Hale S; Campbell S, 2003, 'Translation and Interpreting Assessment in the Context of Educational Measurement', in Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 205 - 224
2003
Hale S, 2001, 'How are courtroom questions interpreted? An analysis of Spanish interpreters' practices', in Mason I (ed.), Triadic Exchanges. Studies in Dialogue Interpreting, edn. Original, St. Jerome Pub., Manchester, pp. 21 - 50
2001
Hale S, 2001, 'Review article on trasvases culturales: literatura, cine, traduccion.', in Translatio XX, edn. Original, pp. 255 - 273
2001
Hale S, 1997, 'The interpreter on trial: Pragmatics in court interpreting', in Carr SE; Roberts RP; Dufour A; Steyn D (ed.), The Critical Link: Interpreters in the Community, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 201 - 211
1997
Conference Abstracts
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Meiser B; Kaur R; Zilliacus E; Wong T; Woodland L; Tomkins S; Kissane D; Girgis A; Butow P; Hale S; Perry A; Aranda S; Shaw T; Tebble H; Goldstein D, 2017, 'Evaluation of an Online Communication Skills Training Programme for Oncology Health Care Professionals Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Patients', in Immunotherapy: Molecules and Mountains, Sydney, presented at COSA's 44th Annual Scientif Meeting, Sydney, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.12798
2017
Conference Papers
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Napier J; Russell D; Hale S; Spencer D; San Roque M, 2018, 'Evidence-based training for legal interpreters to work with deaf jurors', in Winston B; Monikowski C; Lee RG (eds.), Reaching New Heights in Interpreter Education: Mentoring,, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, pp. 256 - 275, presented at 2018 Conference of Interpreter Trainers, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 31 October 2018 - 03 November 2018
2018
Hale S, 2013, 'Alerting the court and tribunal about cultural differences – expectations of judicial officers and tribunal members', in Translation as intercultural mediation - 14-15 November 2013, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, presented at Translation as intercultural mediation, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, 14 November 2013 - 15 November 2013
2013
Hale S, 2003, 'Excuse me, the interpreter wants to speak" -Interpreter interruptions in the courtroom: why do interpreters interrupt and what are the consequences?', in Excuse me, the interpreter wants to speak" -Interpreter interruptions in the courtroom: why do interpreters interrupt and what are the consequences?, Interpreting in the Community : the Complexity of the Profession, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 1 - 8, presented at Interpreting in the Community : the Complexity of the Profession, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 22 May 2001 - 26 May 2001, http://fr.criticallink.org/files/CL3_Hale.pdf
2003
Hale S, 1999, 'La inmigración y los servicios de intérpretes en Australia Refereed Proceedings of the Memories of Migration', in La inmigración y los servicios de intérpretes en Australia Refereed Proceedings of the Memories of Migration, The Spanish experience in Australia conference, UWS Macarthur, Sydney, pp. 125 - 130, presented at The Spanish experience in Australia conference, UWS Macarthur, Sydney, 05 September 1998
1999
Hale S; Campbell S, 1999, 'What makes a text difficult to translate?', in What makes a text difficult to translate?, Proceedings of the 23rd Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), presented at Proceedings of the 23rd Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), 01 January 1999
1999
Conference Posters
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Napier J; Hale SB, 2014, 'Deaf citizens as jurors: Pioneering research in Australia', RIDBC Renwick Centre, Sydney, presented at 4th Australasian Deaf Studies Research Symposium, RIDBC Renwick Centre, Sydney, 25 October 2014 - 26 October 2014, http://www.vicdeaf.com.au/events-details.asp?id=1497&m=201410&region=7
2014
Conference Presentations
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Hale S; Stern L, 2019, 'Interpreters and delegates working together in an international setting', presented at AUSIT National Conference, Hobart, Australia, 18 October 2019 - 19 October 2019, https://ausit.org/AUSIT/Eflash/AUSIT_Conference_2019_Abstracts_Program.pdf
2019
Napier J; Hale SB; Spencer D; San Roque M, 2017, '"I had doubts about how it would work and then I was surprised at how well it did work"', presented at IAFL Porto 2017: 13th Biennial Conference of the International Association of Forensic Linguists, Porto, Portugal, 10 July 2017 - 14 July 2017, https://iaflporto2017.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/programme_vfinal.pdf
2017
Napier J; Hale SB; Russell D, 2016, 'Does research matter? Informing policy changes through critical interpreting studies about Deaf jurors', presented at Critical Link 8: Critical LinkS - A new generation. Future proofing interpreting and translating, Edinburgh, 29 June 2016 - 01 July 2016, http://www.criticallink.org/cli-blog/2016/5/27/rofghsaf9666emrflwgize89j03ixp
2016
Hale SB, 2015, 'Interpreting in the age of technology', presented at Justice Without Barriers: Technology for Greater Access to Justice Conference, Brisbane, 21 May 2015 - 22 May 2015, https://aija.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Tech15-Program.pdf
2015
Hale SB, 2015, 'Court Interpreting: Status, working conditions and quality', presented at Cultural Diversity and the Law conference: Access to Justice in Multicultural Australia, Sydney, 13 March 2015 - 14 March 2015, http://cdlc.org.au/
2015
Goodman-Delahunty J; Hale SB; Martschuk N; Dhami M, 2015, 'Suspect interviews with interpreters: Measuring accuracy and rapport maintenance', presented at EAPL+WORLD 2015 Conference: Current Challenges for Psychology and Law, Nuremberg, 04 August 2015 - 07 August 2015, http://www.eapl-conference2015.de/Program_EAPL2015.pdf
2015
Hale SB; San Roque M, 2015, 'Deaf citizens as jurors: communicating via court interpreters', presented at IAFL 12th Biennial Conference on Forensic Linguistics, Guangdong, China, 06 July 2015 - 09 July 2015, http://www.iafl.org/conffullposts.php?id=118
2015
Hale SB, 2012, 'Interpreting culture', presented at School of International Studies Conference: "Languages matter. Cultures connect", Sydney, 13 April 2012 - 13 April 2012, https://www.arts.unsw.edu.au/events/languages-matter-cultures-connect-2012-school-of-international-studies-conference/#
2012
Hale SB, 2011, '‘Just interpret the words’: The interpreter as defined by judicial officers and tribunal members', presented at ALAA-ALANZ-ALS Langfest Conference, Canberra, 01 December 2011 - 02 December 2011, https://law.anu.edu.au/sites/all/files/conferences/files/langfest-2011/program_internals.pdf
2011
Hale SB, 2010, 'Do interpreters make a difference to juror evaluations of witnesses?', presented at 5th Latin American Congress of Translation and Interpreting, Buenos Aires, 12 May 2010 - 16 May 2010
2010
Hale S, 2004, 'The interpreter's identity crisis', presented at International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies, Seoul, South Korea, 11 August 2004 - 14 August 2004, https://www.iatis.org/index.php/1st-iatis-conference/item/130-general-abstracts#SandraHale
2004
Hale S, 2004, 'The impact of the interpreter on the evaluation of witness character in the adversarial system', presented at Critical Link 4, Stockholm, Sweden, 20 May 2004 - 23 May 2004, http://criticallink.org/cli-4/
2004
Journal articles
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Kaur R; Meiser B; Zilliacus E; Tim Wong WK; Woodland L; Watts K; Tomkins S; Kissane D; Girgis A; Butow P; Hale S; Perry A; Aranda SK; Shaw T; Tebble H; Norris C; Goldstein D, 2019, 'Evaluation of an online communication skills training programme for oncology nurses working with patients from minority backgrounds', Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 27, pp. 1951 - 1960, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-018-4507-4
2019
Napier J; Spencer D; Hale S; Roque MS; Shearim G; Russell D, 2018, 'Changing the international justice landscape: Perspectives on deaf citizenship and jury service', Sign Language Studies, vol. 19, pp. 240 - 266, http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sls.2018.0034
2018
Kaur R; Meiser B; Ziliacus E; Wong WKT; Woodland L; Watts K; Tomkins S; Kissane D; Girgis A; Butow P; Hale S; Perry A; Aranda SK; Shaw T; Tebble H; Norris C; Goldstein D, 2018, 'Evaluation of an online communication skills training programme for oncology nurses working with patients from minority backgrounds', Supportive Care in Cancer, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-018-4507-4
2018
Lipson-Smith R; Hyatt A; Murray A; Butow P; Hack TF; Jefford M; Ozolins U; Hale S; Schofield P, 2018, 'Measuring recall of medical information in non-English-speaking people with cancer: A methodology', Health Expectations, vol. 21, pp. 288 - 299, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hex.12614
2018
Hyatt A; Lipson-Smith R; Gough K; Butow P; Jefford M; Hack TF; Hale S; Zucchi E; White S; Ozolins U; Schofield P, 2018, 'Culturally and linguistically diverse oncology patients' perspectives of consultation audio-recordings and question prompt lists', Psycho-Oncology, vol. 27, pp. 2180 - 2188, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4789
2018
Hale S, 2018, 'Interpreter performance in police interviews. Differences between trained interpreters and untrained bilinguals', Interpreter and Translator Trainer, pp. 1 - 25, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2018.1541649
2018
Liu X; Hale SB, 2018, 'Achieving accuracy in a bilingual courtroom: the effectiveness of specialised legal interpreter training', The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, vol. 12, pp. 299 - 321, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2018.1501649
2018
Liu X; Hale SB, 2018, 'Facework strategies in interpreter-mediated cross-examinations: A corpus-assisted approach', The Interpreter's Newsletter, vol. 22, pp. 57 - 77, http://dx.doi.org/10.13137/2421-714X/20738
2018
Watts KJ; Meiser B; Zilliacus E; Kaur R; Taouk M; Girgis A; Butow P; Goldstein D; Hale S; Perry A; Aranda SK; Kissane DW, 2017, 'Communicating with patients from minority backgrounds: Individual challenges experienced by oncology health professionals', European Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 26, pp. 83 - 90, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2016.12.001
2017
Watts KJ; Meiser B; Zilliacus E; Kaur R; Taouk M; Girgis A; Butow P; Kissane D; Hale S; Perry A; Aranda SK; Goldstein D, 2017, 'Perspectives of oncology nurses and oncologists regarding barriers to working with patients from a minority background: systemic issues and working with interpreters.', European Journal of Cancer Care, vol. 27, pp. e12758, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12758
2017
Hale SB; San Roque M; Spencer D; Napier J, 2017, 'Deaf citizens as jurors in Australian courts: participating via professional interpreters', International Journal of Speech Language and the Law, vol. 24, pp. 151 - 176, http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.32896
2017
Spencer D; San Roque M; Napier J; Hale SB, 2017, 'Justice is blind as long as it isn’t deaf: excluding deaf people from jury duty – an Australian human rights breach', Australian Journal of Human Rights, vol. 23, pp. 332 - 350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1323238X.2017.1392479
2017
Lipson-Smith R; Hyatt A; Butow P; Hack TF; Jefford M; Hale S; Hocking A; Sirianni M; Ozolins U; Yiu D; Schofield P, 2016, 'Are audio recordings the answer? — a pilot study of a communication intervention for non-English speaking patients with cancer', Psycho-Oncology, pp. 1237 - 1240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4193
2016
Hale SB; Napier J, 2016, '"We're just kind of there" Working conditions and perceptions of appreciation and status in court interpreting', Target, vol. 28, pp. 351 - 371, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.28.3.01hal
2016
Hale S, 2015, 'Approaching the Bench: Teaching Magistrates and Judges how to work Effectively with Interpreters', MonTI. Monografías de Traducción e Interpretación, vol. 7, pp. 163 - 180, http://dx.doi.org/10.6035/MonTI.2015.7.6
2015
Hale S; Liddicoat A, 2015, 'The meaning of accuracy and culture, and the rise of the machine in interpreting and translation. A conversation between Sandra Hale and Anthony Liddicoat.', Cultus: The Journal of Intercultural Mediation and Communication, vol. 2015, pp. 14 - 26, http://cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/Hale_Liddicoat_Cultus_8.pdf
2015
Goodman-Delahunty J; Gumbert-Jourjon T; Hale SB, 2014, 'The biasing influence of linguistic variations in DNA profiling evidence', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 1 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00450618.2013.877080
2014
Hale SB; Ozolins, Uldis , 2014, 'Monolingual short courses for language-specific accreditation: can they work? A Sydney experience', The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, vol. 8, pp. 1 - 23, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.929371
2014
Mo, Yongjun ; hale S, 2014, 'Translation and Interpreting Education and Training: Student Voices', International Journal of Interpreter Education, vol. 6, pp. 19 - 34, http://www.cit-asl.org/new/ijie/volume-6-1/
2014
Hale SB, 2013, 'Helping interpreters to truly and faithfully interpret the evidence: The importance of briefing and preparation materials', Australian Bar Review, vol. 37, pp. 307 - 320
2013
Hale S, 2013, 'Interpreting culture. Dealing with cross-cultural issues in court interpreting', Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, vol. 22, pp. 321 - 331, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2013.827226
2013
Hale S; Stern L, 2011, 'Interpreter quality and working conditions: comparing Australian and international courts of justice', Judicial Officers' Bulletin, vol. 23, pp. 75 - 78, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=473459095094748;res=IELHSS
2011
Hale S; Bond N; Sutton J, 2011, 'Interpreting accent in the courtroom', Target, vol. 23, pp. 48 - 61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.23.1.03hal
2011
Hale S, 2011, 'The positive side of community interpreting. An Australian case study', Interpreting, vol. 13, pp. 234 - 248, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.04hal
2011
Hayes A; Hale S, 2010, 'Appeals on incompetent interpreting', Journal of Judicial Administration, vol. 20, pp. 119 - 130
2010
Friedman E; Hale S, 2010, 'Teaching medical students to work with interpreters', The Journal of Specialised Translation, vol. 14, pp. 121 - 144
2010
Hale S, 2007, 'The challenges of court interpreting: intricacies, responsibilities and ramifications', Alternative Law Journal, vol. 32, pp. 198 - 202
2007
Hale S, 2006, 'Themes and methodological issues in Court Interpreting research', Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series - Themes in Translation Studies, vol. 5, pp. 205 - 228
2006
Hale S, 2002, 'How faithfully do court interpreters render the style of non-English speaking witnesses' testimonies? A data-based study of Spanish-English bilingual proceedings', Discourse Studies, vol. 4, pp. 25 - 47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14614456020040010201
2002
Hale S; Campbell S, 2002, 'The Interaction Between Text Difficulty and Translation Accuracy', Babel - Revue Internationale de La Traduction, vol. 48, pp. 14 - 33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.48.1.02hal
2002
Eades D; Cooke M; Hale S, 1999, 'Introduction', Forensic Linguistics, vol. 6, pp. 1 - 5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.v6i1.1
1999
Hale S; Gibbons J, 1999, 'Varying realities: Patterned changes in the interpreter's representation of courtroom and external realities', Applied Linguistics, vol. 20, pp. 203 - 220, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.2.203
1999
Hale S; Gibbons J, 1999, 'Varying Realities: Patterned changes in the Interpreter's representation of courtroom and extrenal realities', Applied Linguistics, vol. 20, pp. 203 - 220, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093
1999
Hale S, 1999, 'Interpreters' treatment of discourse markers in courtroom questions', International Journal of Speech, Language & the Law, vol. 6, pp. 57 - 82, http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/sll.1999.6.1.57
1999
Hale S, 1998, 'El interprete, garantiza la iguldad ante la Ley? El caso de Australia', Sociedad Argentina de Linguistica, vol. 1, pp. 7 - 17
1998
Hale S, 1997, 'The Treatment of Register Variation in Court Interpreting', The Translator, vol. 3, pp. 39 - 54
1997
Hale S, 1997, 'Clash of World Perspectives: The discursive practices of the law, the witness and the interpreter', The International Journal of Speech, Language and law, vol. 4, pp. 197 - 209
1997
Hale S, 1996, 'Pragmatic considerations in court interpreting', Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 19, pp. 61 - 72
1996
Other
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Spencer D; San Roque M; Hale SB; Napier J, 2017, The High Court Considers Participation of Deaf People in Jury Duty, The Law Society of New South Wales, https://www.lawsociety.com.au/resources/journal/LSJOnline/index.htm
2017
Reports
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Hale S; Goodman-Delahunty J; Martschuk N; Dhami MK, 2014, Effects on situational and relational variables on interpreting in high stakes interviewing, Charles Sturt University, Manly
2014
Hale S; Garcia I; Hlavac J; Kim M; Lai M; Turner B; Slatyer H, 2012, Improvements to NAATI testing. Development of a conceptual overview for a new model for NAATI standards, testing and assessment, National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters, Sydney, http://www.naati.com.au/PDF/INT/INTFinalReport.pdf, https://www.naati.com.au/media/1062/intfinalreport.pdf
2012
Hale S, 2011, Interpreter Policies, Practices and Protocols in Australian Courts and Tribunals – A National Survey, Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration, Melbourne, 89, http://www.aija.org.au/online/Pub%20no89.pdf
2011