Paul Ayres

Emeritus Professor of Educational Psychology
Emeritus Professor

Paul Ayres is a Professor in the School of Education (FASS). He is a researcher whose main focus is on learning and instruction. In particular he is a member of the group at UNSW that pioneered Cognitive Load Theory. He has authored a number of international journal articles that have examined various effects related to CLT such as the expertise reversal effect, split-attention, isolating elements, measuring cognitive load, the goal-free effect and worked examples.

A recent focus is on using technology and multimedia in learning, with a special interest on the role of mirror neurons in animated human movement instruction. He has an Australian Research Council Grant for this research in partnership with Fred Paas (Erasmus University, the Netherlands).

He is currently supervising a number of PhD students researching topics such as general problem solving strategies & brainstorming, worked examples & feedback, instructional design for chronic pain learners, human movement & instructional animations, multimedia & cognitive load, early entry of gifted students to university, and effective teaching of gifted students. He also has a broad interest in mathematics education.

Subject areas

Publications

Books
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Ayres PL, 2006, Book of ideas for teaching English to pupils with dyslexia, Original, Oxford University Press, http://www.sevt.cz/produkt/anglicky-napadnicek-pro-ucitele-a-rodice-nejen-deti-s-dydlexii-ktere-zacinaji-s-anglictinoui-11878605/
2006
Ayres PL; Dinham S; Sawyer W, 2000, Successful Senior Secondary Teaching, Original, Australian College of Education Quality Teaching, Deakin West ACT 2600
2000
Ayres PL, 2000, Numeracy in Australia: Are Standards Falling?, Original, Rapidreprographics, North Sydney
2000
Book Chapters
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Ayres P; Juan C. C-A; Wong M; Marcus N; Paas F, 2019, 'Factors That Impact on The Effectiveness of Instructional Animations.', in Tindall-Ford S; Agostinho S; Sweller J (ed.), Advances in Cognitive Load Theory Rethinking Teaching, Routledge, London
2019
Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2018, 'Computerized and adaptable tests to measure visuospatial abilities in stem students', in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 337 - 349, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60018-5_33
2018
Ayres P, 2017, 'Subjective measures of cognitive load: What can they reliably measure?', in Zheng RZ (ed.), Cognitive Load Measurement and Application, Routledge, pp. 9 - 28
2017
Ayres P; Castro-Alonso JC; Paas F, 2015, 'The potential of embodied cognition to improve STEAM dynamic visualizations', in Ge X; Ifenthaler D; Spector JM (ed.), Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education Full STEAM Ahead, Springer, New York, pp. 113 - 136, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02573-5
2015
Ayres P; Castro-Alonso JC; Paas F, 2014, 'Dynamic visualisations and motor skills', in Handbook of Human Centric Visualization, edn. 1, Springer, New york, pp. 551 - 580, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7485-2
2014
Ayres P; Sweller J, 2014, 'The split-attention principle in multimedia learning', in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd edition), Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 206 - 226, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139547369.011
2014
Ayres P; Sweller J, 2013, 'Worked examples', in Hattie J; Anderman EM (ed.), International Guide to Student Achievement, edn. 1st, Routledge, Oxford, pp. 408 - 410
2013
Ayres P; Cierniak G, 2012, 'The split-attention effect', in Seel NM (ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, edn. 1st, Springer, Berlin, pp. 3172 - 3175
2012
Ayres P, 2012, 'Worked example effect', in Seel NM (ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, edn. 1st, Springer, Berlin, pp. 3467 - 3471
2012
Pass F; Ayres PL; Pachman M, 2008, 'Assessment of Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning', in Robinson DH; Schraw G (ed.), Recent Innovations in Educational Technology that Facilitate Student Learning, edn. 1, Information Age Publisher, Charlotte, NC, pp. 11 - 35
2008
Pass F; Gog TV; Kirschner F; Marcus N; Ayres PL; Sweller J, 2008, 'Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Cognitive Load Research as a Key to Tackle Challenges', in Zumbach J (ed.), Beyond Knowledge: The Legacy of Competence, edn. 1, Springer, Speringr-Veriag New York, pp. 1 - 9, http://www.springer.com/education+%26+language/learning+%26+instruction/book/978-1-4020-8826-1
2008
Paas F; Ayres P; Pachman M, 2008, 'ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE LOAD IN MULTIMEDIA LEARNING Theory, Methods and Applications', in Robinson DH; Schraw G (ed.), RECENT INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY THAT FACILITATE STUDENT LEARNING, edn. Current Perspectives on Cognition Learning and Instruction, INFORMATION AGE PUBLISHING-IAP, pp. 11 - 35, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000268166700002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2008
Gog TV; Rikers R; Ayres PL, 2008, 'Assessment of Complex Performance', in Spector J; Merrill M; Van Merrienboer J; Driscoll M (ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, edn. 3rd, Erlbaum, NY, pp. 763 - 806
2008
Conference Abstracts
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Weltman HR; Marcus N; Timchenko V; Ayres P, 2017, 'Adaptive Tutorials to Support Learning', in International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (ICLTC2017), International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (ICLTC2017), Wollongong, Australia, presented at International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (ICLTC2017), Wollongong, Australia, 20 November 2017 - 22 November 2017
2017
Marcus N; Ghatpande A; Ayres P, 2017, 'Is reading, writing or typing a better way to learn.', in International Cognitive Load Theory conference 2017, 10th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Wollongong, Australia, presented at 10th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Wollongong, Australia, 20 November 2017 - 22 November 2017
2017
Conference Papers
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Brucker B; Marcus N; de Koning B; Ehlis A-C; Ayres P; Gerjets P, 2019, 'Learning with Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Influence of Observing Hands and Spatial Ability', in European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), RWTH Aachen University, Germany., presented at EARLI 2019, RWTH Aachen University, Germany., 12 August 2019 - 16 November 2019
2019
Gomes F; Ayres P; Marcus N, 2017, 'The Role of Gender and Spatial Ability in Enhancing Static Pictures with Embodied Cognition.', in European Association for Research on Learning and (ed.), The 17th Biennial EARLI 2017 conference, The 17th Biennial EARLI 2017 conference, Tampere, Finland, presented at The 17th Biennial EARLI 2017 conference, Tampere, Finland, 29 August 2017 - 02 September 2017
2017
Wong M; Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2016, 'Learning with instructional animation in a different way', in Learning with instructional animation in a different way, EARLI 2016 SIG6&7, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France, presented at EARLI 2016 SIG6&7, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France, 24 August 2016 - 26 August 2016
2016
Singh A; Marcus N; ayres P, 2015, 'The Impact of Segmentation on Written and Spoken Explanations involving Complex Explanatory Text', in European Association for Research on Learning and (ed.), 16th Biennial EARLI conference, 16th Biennial EARLI conference, Limassol, Cyprus, presented at 16th Biennial EARLI conference, Limassol, Cyprus, 25 August 2015 - 29 August 2015
2015
ayres P; Castro- Alonso JC; Singh A; Wong M; Marcus N; Paas F, 2015, 'Strategies and Learner Characteristics that Make Instructional Animations Effective', in Shoniregun CA; Akmayera GA (ed.), Published Proceedeings of the 2015 Irish International Conference on Education,, Ireland International Conference on Education, Dublin, pp. 340 - 344, presented at Ireland International Conference on Education, Dublin, 20 April 2015 - 22 April 2015, http://www.cnr.it/istituti/Allegato_101626.pdf?LO=01000000d9c8b7a6090000000d000000ed13000095819c53000000000100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000&type=
2015
Bellec D; Tricot A; Ayres P, 2012, 'A comparison of different levels of interactions when using the isolated-elements strategy', in STAGING KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE: HOW TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF REPRESENTATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING?, Université Pierre-Mendès-France, Grenoble, France, pp. 31 - 33, presented at EARLI SIG2 Meeting 2012, Grenoble, France, 28 August 2012 - 31 August 2012, http://earlisig2-2012.upmf-grenoble.fr/
2012
Ayres P; Kalyuga S; Sweller J, 2012, 'An  application  of  the  imagination  effect  in  a  real-­life   business  training  program', in EARLI SIG 6/7 Conference 2012 Program Book, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy, pp. 189 - 191, presented at Instructional design for advancing learning in a networked society, Bari, Italy, 11 September 2012 - 13 September 2012, http://earli-sig67.slo.nl/
2012
Ayres PL, 2010, 'Can Australians mark KS3 mathematics exams? A study in cultural differences', in Published Proceedings of the 7th British Congress of Mathematics Education, In M. Joubert & P. Andrews (Eds.), Manchester, UK, pp. 25 - 32, presented at 7th British Congress of Mathematics Education, Manchester, UK, 01 April 2010
2010
Ayres PL, 2010, 'Reducing intrinsic cognitive load: Different strategies with a common explanation', in Published Proceedings of the 2010 EARLI SIG 6/7 Conference, In T. Seufert, G. Corbalan, J. Zumbach & B. Logorio (Eds.), Ulm, Germany, pp. 164 - 166, presented at 2010 EARLI SIG 6/7 Conference, Ulm, Germany, 01 August 2010
2010
Youssef A; Ayres PL; Sweller SM, 2010, 'Evidence for a teachable/learnable general problem solving strategy', in Evidence for a teachable/learnable general problem solving strategy, 4th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Hong Kong, presented at 4th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Hong Kong, 22 November 2010 - 25 November 2010
2010
Ayres P; Youssef A, 2008, 'Investigating the influence of transitory information and motivation during instructional animations', in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL, pp. 68 - 75
2008
Ayres PL; McCormick JM, 2006, 'Grade 12 Mathematics Teachers` Views on Curriculum Reform in NSW', in Annual Conference 29 Maths Education Research Group of Australasia, Annual Conference 29 Maths Education Research Group of Australasia, Canberra, presented at Annual Conference 29 Maths Education Research Group of Australasia, Canberra, 01 July 2006 - 05 July 2006
2006
Ayres PL; McCormick JM; Beechey B, 2003, 'Teachers` Perceptions of the Implementation of the New South Wales Higher School Certificate', in Cowley T; Williamson J (ed.), AARE Conference Papers - Electronic, AARE, Victoria, presented at AARE 2002: Australian Association for Research in Education National Conference, Brisbane, Qld, 01 December 2002 - 05 December 2002
2003
Way J; Ayres PL, 2002, 'The stability of young students probability notions', in International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Norwich, UK, presented at International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Norwich, UK, 21 July 2002 - 26 July 2002
2002
Ayres PL; Sawyer W; Dinham S, 2001, 'Effective teaching and student independance of Grade 12', in AERA Annual Conference, AERA Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA, pp. 1 - 2, presented at AERA Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, USA, 10 April 2001 - 14 April 2001
2001
Ayres PL; Way J, 2001, 'The effects of instruction on likelihood misconceptions', in 25th conference of the international group for the Psychology of mathematics education, 25th conference of the international group for the Psychology of mathematics education, Utrecht, the Netherlands, presented at 25th conference of the international group for the Psychology of mathematics education, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 01 January 2001
2001
Ayres PL, 2000, 'An analysis of bracket expansion errors', in PME 24, PME 24, Hiroshima Japan 2000, presented at PME 24, Hiroshima Japan 2000, 23 July 2000 - 27 July 2000
2000
Ayres PL, 2000, 'Mental effort and errors in bracket expansion tasks', in Mathematics Education Beyond 2000, 23rd annual conference of the mathematics education research group of Australasia incorporated, Fremantle, WA, presented at 23rd annual conference of the mathematics education research group of Australasia incorporated, Fremantle, WA, 05 July 2000 - 09 July 2000
2000
Ayres PL; Way J, 2000, 'Knowing the Sample Space or Not: The Effects on Decision Making', in PME 24, PME 24, Hiroshima Japan 2000, presented at PME 24, Hiroshima Japan 2000, 23 July 2000 - 27 July 2000
2000
Conference Presentations
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de Koning B; Marcus N; Bruecker B; Ayres P, 2018, 'Helping Hands? Learning hand motor skills from static graphics and animations with and without hands.', presented at 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), New York, USA, 13 April 2018 - 17 April 2018
2018
Marcus N; Lajevardi N; Ayres P, 2016, 'Does gesturing improve the learning of human motor skills for children, when learning from instructional animation and statics?', presented at The 9th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Bochum, Germany, 22 June 2016 - 24 June 2016
2016
Ayres P; Mierowsky R; Marcus N, 2016, 'The Impact of Gesturing when Learning to Play Piano Clips from Animations', presented at The 9th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Bochum, Germany, 22 June 2016 - 24 June 2016, http://icltc2016.de/schedule/
2016
Marcus N; Ayres P; narang N, 2013, 'Does adding gestures to both instructional animations and statics improve learning human motor skills?', presented at 6th International Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Toulouse, France, 26 June 2013 - 28 June 2013
2013
Marcus N; Mok K; Ayres P; Van Gog T, 'Investigating the role of hand perspective when learning knot tying from instructional animations.', presented at 12th International Cognitive Load theory conference, Maastricht, the Netherlands, 17 June 2019 - 19 June 2019
Journal articles
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de Koning BB; Marcus N; Brucker B; Ayres P, 2019, 'Does observing hand actions in animations and static graphics differentially affect learning of hand-manipulative tasks?', Computers and Education, vol. 141, pp. 103636 - 103636, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103636
2019
Manson E; Ayres P, 2019, 'Investigating how errors should be flagged and worked examples structured when providing feedback to novice learners of mathematics', Educational Psychology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2019.1650895
2019
Mierowsky R; Marcus N; Ayres P, 2019, 'Using mimicking gestures to improve observational learning from instructional videos', Educational Psychology, pp. 1 - 20, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2019.1650896
2019
Castro-Alonso JC; Wong M; Adesope OO; Ayres P; Paas F, 2019, 'Gender Imbalance in Instructional Dynamic Versus Static Visualizations: a Meta-analysis', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 31, pp. 361 - 387, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09469-1
2019
Wong M; Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2018, 'Investigating gender and spatial measurements in instructional animation research', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 89, pp. 446 - 456, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.017
2018
Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Wong M; Paas F, 2018, 'Learning symbols from permanent and transient visual presentations: Don't overplay the hand', Computers & Education, vol. 116, pp. 1 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.08.011
2018
Weltman H; Timchenko V; Sofios H; Ayres P; Marcus N, 2018, 'Evaluation of an adaptive tutorial supporting the teaching of mathematics', European Journal of Engineering Education, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2018.1513993
2018
Retnowati E; Ayres P; Sweller J, 2018, 'Collaborative learning effects when students have complete or incomplete knowledge', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 32, pp. 681 - 692, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3444
2018
Lajevardi N; Narang NS; Marcus N; Ayres P, 2017, 'Can mimicking gestures facilitate learning from instructional animations and static graphics?', Computers and Education, vol. 110, pp. 64 - 76, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.03.010
2017
Singh AM; Marcus N; Ayres P, 2017, 'Strategies to reduce the negative effects of spoken explanatory text on integrated tasks', Instructional Science, vol. 45, pp. 239 - 261, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11251-016-9400-2
2017
Stebner F; Kühl T; Höffler TN; Wirth J; Ayres P, 2017, 'The role of process information in narrations while learning with animations and static pictures', Computers and Education, vol. 104, pp. 34 - 48, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.11.001
2017
Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2016, 'Comparing apples and oranges? A critical look at research on learning from statics versus animations', Computers and Education, vol. 102, pp. 234 - 243, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.09.004
2016
Smith A; Ayres P, 2016, 'Investigating the Modality and Redundancy Effects for Learners with Persistent Pain', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 28, pp. 401 - 424, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-014-9293-z
2016
Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2015, 'Animations showing Lego manipulative tasks: Three potential moderators of effectiveness', Computers and Education, vol. 85, pp. 1 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.12.022
2015
Ayres P, 2015, 'State-of-the-Art Research into Multimedia Learning: A Commentary on Mayer's Handbook of Multimedia Learning', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 29, pp. 631 - 636, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3142
2015
Fraser KL; Ayres P; Sweller J, 2015, 'Cognitive load theory for the design of medical simulations', Simulation in Healthcare, vol. 10, pp. 295 - 307, http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000097
2015
Wong M; Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2015, 'Gender Effects When Learning Manipulative Tasks From Instructional Animations and Static Presentations', Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol. 18, pp. 37 - 52, http://www.ifets.info/journals/18_4/4.pdf
2015
Youssef-Shalala A; Ayres P; Schubert C; Sweller J, 2014, 'Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 20, pp. 215 - 231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xap0000021
2014
Castro-Alonso JC; Ayres P; Paas F, 2014, 'Learning from observing hands in static and animated versions of non-manipulative tasks', Learning and Instruction, vol. 34, pp. 11 - 21, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.07.005
2014
Paas F; Ayres P, 2014, 'Cognitive Load Theory: A Broader View on the Role of Memory in Learning and Education', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 26, pp. 191 - 195, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-014-9263-5
2014
Smith AJ; Ayres, P , 2013, 'The Impact of Persistent Pain on Working Memory and Learning', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 26, pp. 245 - 264, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-013-9247-x
2013
Marcus N; Cleary B; Wong A; Ayres P, 2013, 'Should hand actions be observed when learning hand motor skills from instructional animations?', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, pp. 2172 - 2178, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.035
2013
Singh A; Marcus N; Ayres P, 2012, 'The transient information effect: Investigating the impact of segmentation on spoken and written text', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 848 - 853, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.2885
2012
Ayres P, 2012, 'Can the isolated-elements strategy be improved by targeting points of high cognitive load for additional practice?', Learning and Instruction, vol. 23, pp. 115 - 124, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.08.002
2012
Moussa-inaty J; Ayres PL; Sweller J, 2012, 'Improving listening skills in English as a foreign language by reading rather than listening: A cognitive load perspective', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 391 - 402, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1840
2012
Ayres P; Paas F, 2012, 'Cognitive load theory: New directions and challenges', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 827 - 832, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.2882
2012
Youssef A; Ayres P; Sweller J, 2012, 'Using general problem-solving strategies to generate ideas in order to solve geography problems', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 848 - 853, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.2888
2012
Kirschner PA; Ayres PL; Chandler PA, 2011, 'Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, pp. 99 - 105, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.025
2011
Ayres PL; Zhang L; Chan K, 2011, 'Examining different types of collaborative learning in a complex computer-based environment: A cognitive load approach', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, pp. 94 - 98, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.038
2011
Wong A; Marcus N; Ayres PL; Sweller J, 2009, 'Instructional animations can be superior to statics when learning human motor skills', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 25, pp. 339 - 347, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.012
2009
Ayres PL; Gog TV, 2009, 'State of the art research into Cognitive Load Theory', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 25, pp. 253 - 257, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.007
2009
Van Gog T; Paas F; Marcus N; Ayres PL; Sweller J, 2009, 'The mirror neuron system and observational learning: Implications for the effectiveness of dynamic visualizations', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 21, pp. 21 - 30, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-008-9094-3
2009
McCormick JM; Ayres PL, 2009, 'Teacher self-efficacy and occupational stress: A major Australian curriculum reform revisited', Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 47, pp. 463 - 476, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230910967446
2009
Young MO; Ayres PL; Rogers KL, 2009, 'Getting in: Australian university decision-making processes when gifted learners apply for early admission', Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, vol. 18, pp. 43 - 54
2009
Ayres PL; Marcus N; Chan C; Qian N, 2009, 'Learning hand manipulative tasks: When instructional animations are superior to equivalent static representations', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 25, pp. 348 - 353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.013
2009
Nyhan B; Ayres P, 2009, 'Creating the social foundations for apprenticeship in Ireland', Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33, pp. 457 - 469, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090590910966599
2009
Ayres PL; Paas F, 2009, 'Interdisciplinary perspectives inspiring a new generation of cognitive load research', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 21, pp. 1 - 9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-008-9090-7
2009
Paas F; Van Gog T; Kirschner F; Marcus N; Ayres P; Sweller J, 2008, 'Interdisciplinary perspectives on cognitive load research as a key to tackle challenges of contemporary education', Beyond Knowledge: The Legacy of Competence: Meaningful Computer-based Learning Environments, pp. 7 - 9, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8827-8_2
2008
Young MO; Rogers KL; Ayres PL, 2007, 'The state of early tertiary admission in Australia: 2000 to present', Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, vol. 16, pp. 15 - 25, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=797484890408330;res=IELHSS
2007
Ayres PL; Paas F, 2007, 'Can the Cognitive Load Approach Make Instructional Animations More Effective?', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 21, pp. 811 - 820, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1351
2007
Ayres PL; Paas F, 2007, 'Making Instructional Animations More Effective: A Cognitive Load Approach', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 21, pp. 695 - 700, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1343
2007
Mayer R; Deleeuw K; Ayres PL, 2007, 'Creating Retroactive and Proactive Interference in Multimedia Learning', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 21, pp. 795 - 809, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1350
2007
McCormick JM; Ayres PL; Beechey B, 2006, 'Teaching self-efficacy, stress and coping in a major curriculum reform', Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44, pp. 53 - 70
2006
Ayres PL, 2006, 'Using subjective measures to detect variations of intrinsic cognitive load within problems', Learning and Instruction, vol. 16, pp. 389 - 400, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.09.001
2006
McCormick J; Ayres PL; Beechey B, 2006, 'Teaching self-efficacy, stress and coping in a major curriculum reform: Applying theory to context', Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44, pp. 53 - 70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230610642656
2006
Ayres PL, 2006, 'Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain', Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 20, pp. 287 - 298, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1245
2006
Pawley DM; Ayres PL; Cooper MG; Sweller J, 2005, 'Translating words into equations: A cognitive load theory approach', Educational Psychology, vol. 25, pp. 75 - 97, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000294903
2005
Clarke TA; Ayres PL; Sweller J, 2005, 'The impact of sequencing and prior knowledge on learning mathematics through spreadsheet applications', Etr&D - Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 53, pp. 15 - 24, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504794
2005
van Merrienboer JJG; Ayres P, 2005, 'Research on cognitive load theory and its design implications for e-learning', ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, vol. 53, pp. 5 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504793
2005
Ayres PL, 2005, 'The Scaling of HSC English: Myths and Facts', The Scaling of HSC English: Myths and Facts, vol. 142, pp. 10 - 15
2005
Merrienboer J; Ayres PL, 2005, 'Research on Cognitive Load Theory and Its Design Implications for E-learning: Introduction to the special issue', Etr&D - Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 53, pp. 5 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504793
2005
Ayres PL; Sawyer W; Dinham S, 2004, 'Effective teaching in the context of a Grade 12 high-stakes external examination in New South Wales, Australia', British Educational Research Journal, vol. 30, pp. 141 - 165, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920310001630008
2004
Ayres PL, 2001, 'Systematic mathematical errors and cognitive load', Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 227 - 248, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.2000.1051
2001
Ayres PL; Dinham S; Sawyer W, 2000, 'What Does an Effective year 12 English Teacher Look Like?', Stella, vol. 129-130, pp. 51 - 64
2000
Ayres PL, 1993, 'Why Goal-Free Problems Can Facilitate Learning', Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 18, pp. 376 - 381, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1993.1027
1993
AYRES P; SWELLER J, 1990, 'LOCUS OF DIFFICULTY IN MULTISTAGE MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 103, pp. 167 - 193, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1423141
1990